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Plant-Based Meat Fact Sheet - Mr Validity

This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance, see our consumer fact sheet on Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance.

Plant-Based Meat Fact Sheet | - Mr Validity

This fact sheet provides an overview of selected ingredients in dietary supplements designed or claimed to enhance exercise and athletic performance. Manufacturers and sellers promote these products, sometimes referred to as "ergogenic aids," by claiming that they improve strength or endurance, increase exercise efficiency, achieve a performance goal more quickly, and increase tolerance for more intense training. These effects are the main focus of this fact sheet. Some people also use ergogenic aids to prepare the body for exercise, reduce the chance of injury during training, and enhance recovery from exercise [1,2].

Most studies to assess the potential value and safety of supplements to enhance exercise and athletic performance include only conditioned athletes. Therefore, it is often not clear whether the supplements discussed in this fact sheet may be of value to recreational exercisers or individuals who engage in athletic activity only occasionally. In addition, much of the research on these supplements involves young adults (more often male than female), and not adolescents who may also use them against the advice of pediatric and high-school professional associations [7,15]. The quality of many studies is limited by their small samples and short durations, use of performance tests that do not simulate real-world conditions or are unreliable or irrelevant, and poor control of confounding variables [12]. Furthermore, the benefits and risks shown for the supplements might not apply to the supplement's use to enhance types of physical performance not assessed in the studies. In most cases, additional research is needed to fully understand the efficacy and safety of particular ingredients.

Table 1 briefly summarizes the findings discussed in more detail in this fact sheet on the safety and efficacy of selected ingredients in dietary supplements to enhance exercise and athletic performance. Some research-derived data is available on these ingredients on which to base a judgment about their potential value to aid exercise and athletic performance. These dietary supplement ingredients are listed and discussed in the table, and in the text that follows the table, in alphabetical order.

Individuals have varied responses to creatine supplementation, based on factors such as diet and the relative percentages of various muscle fiber types [114,119]. Vegetarians, for example, with their lower muscle creatine content, might have greater responses to supplementation than meat eaters. Overall, creatine enhances performance during repeated short bursts of high-intensity, intermittent activity, such as sprinting and weight lifting, where energy for this predominantly anaerobic exercise comes mainly from the ATP-creatine phosphate energy system [38,114].

See other sections of this fact sheet for information on the amino acids arginine and glutamine as well as the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). The potential of these amino acids to enhance exercise and athletic performance is not related to their incorporation into proteins.

This fact sheet by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your health care providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.

We already advise eating more fruit, vegetables, pulses and wholegrains, and less meat, whether you eat animal products or not. A greater emphasis on plant-based proteins over meat was also incorporated into national guidance in 2016.

However, if the current buzz around companies like Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat translates into long-term customer demand, then KFC will certainly test a plant-based meat substitute in the US, Hochman said. The chain has already been testing vegetarian "fried chicken" in the UK.

I suppose some say that if you eat vegan and do everything correctly, including supplementation, you can be quite healthy. However, I would suggest that animal products do offer a very large significant safety factor in case you were to miss something. Particular interest for many people would be Vitamin B-12 which is primarily found in red meat and fish, not even so much in poultry or dairy. That is not all by any means, just do not depend on poultry alone for meat.

Achieving a sustainable and healthy diet requires increased replacement of red meat with more sustainable foods. There is a call for novel methodologies to assess the potential of different interventions and policies in enhancing the transition from the current to more sustainable choices. We aimed to characterize consumer clusters with similar preferences in protein sources, to compare the purchase prices of these foods, and to identify ongoing transitions from one protein source to another. Grocery purchase data with individual attributes on 29,437 consenting loyalty card holders were analyzed over 2.3 year period. We designed a sequence analysis to group participants to clusters with similar purchase preferences over the follow-up period and to estimate transition probabilities between preferences. We studied the determinants of prevalent purchase profiles by ordinal logistic models. We identified six participant profiles with similar preferences in four protein sources: red meat, poultry, fish, and plant-based foods. Red meat dominated the purchase preferences and showed the highest persistence over time. The majority (70%) of the participants demonstrated somewhat mixed purchase profiles. A step-by-step transition from red meat towards plant-based food preference seems most likely via poultry and fish. Overall, low income was not a barrier to a more sustainable purchase profile, while price may deter the purchase of fish. The most important resources in choosing more sustainable profiles were education and stage of family life. Societal incentives for sustainable food choices seem most crucial at transition stages of life course and for the less educated. Here, we also demonstrate that grocery purchase data offer a valuable tool for monitoring the progressive transition towards a healthy and sustainable food system.

Finland is considered the most northerly agricultural country in the world [17]: the agriculture relies heavily on grassland, and milk production is the most economically significant agricultural sector. Finnish beef production is primarily based on dairy animals. Finland consumes more meat than it produces. In 2020, people consumed an average of 79 kilograms of meat (carcass meat with bones), 15 kilograms of fish, and 64 kilograms of vegetables [18]. In 2017, only 21% of Finnish men and 74% of Finnish women could limit their consumption of red and processed meat to a maximum of 500 g per week according to the recommendation [19]. We recently showed that the consumption of red meat among Finnish preschoolers was about fivefold the EAT-Lancet target [20]. In contrast, the consumption of plant-based protein sources like legumes and nuts was very low. Transforming the current diet closer to the reference diet would require drastic changes not only to the food habits but also at the food system level in Finland.

There is a call for multiple indicators and novel methodologies to assess the potential of different interventions, policies, and social media debates in enhancing the transition from the current to more sustainable dietary choices [29,30]. We used the extensive individualized purchase data of the leading grocery retailing loyalty card program in Finland, with the first aim of identifying and characterizing consumer clusters with similar preferences in protein sources. While red meat remains the most important meal component in most high-income countries, transitions away from red meat as the main dish towards poultry, fish, and plant-based foods were examined. Our second aim was to compare the purchase prices of these foods. To use the detailed data efficiently, we undertook a customized sequence analysis of the preferred protein sources over time, enabling our third aim: the identification of ongoing transitions from one protein source to another. We emphasized the role of everyday, educational, and economic resources and demographic factors in sustainable purchase behavior and considered nutrition literacy and attitude as possible mediators. Given that dietary behaviors are modifiable and most people consume these protein sources on a daily basis, our findings have critical public health and environmental implications.

Red meat and processed meat were by far the most common weekly purchase preference, accounting for 63% of main protein sources, followed by poultry and poultry dishes (14%), fish and seafood (11%), and plant-based foods (8%). Four percent of preferences were missing.

Each row in a panel represents an individual sequence of preferences with each week assigned the colour of the preference; 500 sequences per cluster are shown. The proportion of each food group (% of volume [kg] R-P-F-PB) is shown in the title. R = red meat and processed meat, P = poultry and poultry dishes, F = fish and seafood, and PB = plant-based foods. 041b061a72


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